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Tallinn arvudes – mõisted

Statistical Yearbook of Tallinn

The population account of Estonia, Tallinn and Harju County is based on the (testimony-based) results of the 2000 Population and Housing Census, which were supplemented each year by the data of registered vital events – births, deaths and migration.

The second source of account of Tallinn population is Population Register (Estonian Ministry of the Interior).

Birth, death, marriage and divorce statistics include the vital events of Estonian inhabitants. Newborn’s place of residence is mother’s place of residence.

Demographic labour pressure index - the share of persons (aged 5–14 years) who will enter the labour market and persons (aged 55–64) who will exit the labour market during next ten years. If the index is bigger than 0, the number of persons entering the labour market is larger than the number of persons potentially leaving.

Dependency ratio - number of population aged 0–14 and over 65years (inactive population) per 100 of number of population aged 15–64 (active population).

Emigration - the action in the course of which a person having lived permanently in one settlement unit suspends permanent residence in the respective settlement unit for a period which is or which is expected to be of at least 12 months.

Ethnic nationality - the data are based on self-determination. The ethnic nationality of the mother is taken as a basis for determining the ethnic nationality of the child.

Immigration - the action by which a person, having previously been a permanent resident in one settlement unit, moves to reside permanently in another settlement unit for a period which is or which is expected to be of at least 12 months.

Internal migration - changes of residence from one settlement unit to another within Estonia.

Legally induced abortion (or medical abortion) - includes legal and therapeutic abortion. Legal abortion is the legal termination of the pregnancy at the pregnant woman’s own wish. Therapeutic abortion is the termination of pregnancy on medical indications.

Migration - a cross-border change of the place of residence from one settlement unit to another.

Mother tongue - the language that was the first language spoken in early childhood and which is usually the language that the person commands best. Parents tell the mother tongue of their children.

Native and foreign-origin population - the population of Estonia has been divided into native and foreign-origin population as follows:

  • native population – persons permanently living in Estonia, at least one of the parents and at least one of the grandparents of whose were born in Estonia;
  • foreign-origin population – persons permanently living in Estonia who do not belong to the native population.

Foreign-origin population, in turn, has been divided into the first, second and third generation as follows:

  • first generation – persons permanently living in Estonia who and whose parents were born abroad;
  • second generation – persons permanently living in Estonia who were born in Estonia but whose parents were born abroad;
  • third generation persons – permanently living in Estonia of whose parents at least one was born in Estonia but whose grandparents were all born abroad.

Natural increase - excess of live births over deaths in a certain year. The positive natural increase shows the excess of live births over deaths, the negative one shows the excess of deaths over live births.

Net Migration - the difference between immigration into and emigration from the area.

Temporary residence permit shall be issued for up to 5 years and extended for up to 10 years.


2. Household. ICT usage in households and by individuals

At-risk-of-poverty rate - share of persons with an equalised yearly disposable income lower than the at-risk-of-poverty threshold.

Disposable income (net) - monetary and non-monetary net income which is received as earnings from employment, income from self-employment (agricultural and non-farm self-employment), property income, pensions and different social benefits, grants, scholarships and other income (see Other income).

Equalised income - total household income, which is divided by a sum of equivalence scales of all household members.

Equivalence scale - a weight designated to a household member depending on his/her age to reflect the joint consumption of a household.

Expenditures (outgoing) - one of the main indicators of the Household Budget Survey. These expenditures are divided into two:

  • consumption expenditure and other expenditure. Mortgage payments, real estate purchases;
  • financial investments, expenses on major repairs or construction and other investments are not taken into account here.

Household - a group of people who live in a common dwelling (at the same address) and share joint financial and/or food resources and whose members consider themselves to be members of one household. A household may also consist of one member only. Persons living in institutional households (substitute homes, care homes) are excluded.

Income from labour - earnings received from employment (wages and salaries, advance payments and premiums), holiday compensations without income tax.

Income from self-employment - income from agricultural and forestry activity (monetary and non-monetary) and income from non-farm self-employment (monetary and non-monetary). Calculations of income from self-employment include only net income – current expenditure is deducted. The estimate is negative, if the expenditures of the current month are bigger than income.

Non-monetary consumption - consumption of non-monetary income and own-produced foodstuffs calculated into monetary value.

Non-monetary income - income from wage labour, as well as income for labour or goods and services received as a gift and calculated into monetary value.

Other expenditure - various monetary expenditures such as alimonies, maintenance costs, fines, gifts, etc.

Other income - income from the sale of personal goods, personal income tax returned, settlement of other taxes, refunded insurance premiums and lottery prizes.

Transfers - redistribution of funds from one part of the society to another. Transfers divided into two categories: redistribution of state and/or municipal funds to residents (pensions, unemployment benefits, child benefits, sickness benefits, etc.) and redistribution of private funds (maintenance allowance, support payments, gifts, etc.).


3. Housing. Real estate

Conventional dwellings - structurally separate and independent premises at fixed locations which are designed for permanent human habitation.

Dwelling - a one-family house, section of a two-family or a terraced house, or a flat, which consists of one or more rooms, meets sanitary engineering requirements and is suitable for permanent residence.

Floor area of dwellings - total floor area of functionally united rooms (bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms, etc.) and secondary rooms (kitchen, hall, bathroom, toilet, pantry, storage room, built-in cupboards, etc.) necessary or suitable for living in.

Non-residential building - building not intended for permanent habitation.

Occupied dwelling - at least one resident has registered it as the place of residence in the Population Register.

Private dwelling stock - dwellings owned by private persons or private property based legal persons including members of apartment and dwelling associations.

Public dwelling stock - dwellings in state or municipal ownership.

Purchase-sale contract of real estate - purchase-sale contract the object of which (plot of land or right of superficies) has been entered into the land register.

Residential building - one-family dwelling, two-family dwelling, terraced house or any other multifamily house.

Value of contracts - contractual value of real estate or movable assets transferred by purchase-sale contracts.


4. Public health. Healthcare

Access to health care - persons who during the past 12 months were in a situation where they needed medical attention but for some reason did not receive it, are considered.

Average length of stay - average number of bed-days of all discharged in-patients.

Bed occupancy rate - number of days when a hospital bed was used as a percentage of all days in the observed period.

Bed turnover - average number of patients per hospital bed.

Diagnosis (according to ICD-10) - the diagnosis established according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10).

Disability - the loss of or an abnormality in an anatomical, physiological or mental structure or function of a person.

Disability free life expectancy - expected years of life free from limiting long-standing illness or disability.

Nursing staff - nurses, medical assistants and midwives (persons who have covered at least a 3 year base course in nursery).


5. Social protection

At-risk-of-poverty threshold - 60% of the median equalised yearly disposable income of household members.

General care homes - institutions established for living, care and rehabilitation for the elderly and disabled persons.

Pension for incapacity for work - the pension granted to persons from 16 years of age until attainment of pensionable age if the person is declared permanently incapacitated for work.

Social rehabilitation centre - institutions established for intensive rehabilitation of persons with special needs.

Special care homes - institutions for living, care and rehabilitation established for persons of unsound mind or with severe mental disabilities.

Substitute home service - ensuring family-like living conditions by a service provider to a child for meeting his or her basic necessities, the creation of a secure physical and social environment promoting his or her development and preparation of the child for coping in accordance with his or her abilities as an adult. Persons entitled to substitute home service: their parents are dead, declared fugitive or missing; a guardian has been appointed to their parents due to restricted active legal capacity; their parents are deprived of parental rights; they have been removed from their parents without deprivation of parental rights or their parents are serving custody pending trial or imprisonment in a prison.

Safe house service - social service organised by a local authority, the objective of which is to ensure persons in need of help (children in need of assistance due to deficient care which endangers his or her life, health or development and adults who need a safe environment) temporary housing, a safe environment and basic assistance. Upon provision on basic assistance, the person shall be ensured crisis assistance, if necessary, which restores the person’s mental balance and operational capacity in everyday life. Based on the age and needs of the person, his or her care and development shall also be ensured.

Substitute home - an institution providing a child without parental care 24-hour care, development and living conditions.

Unemployment allowance (unemployment benefit before 2006) - the persons entitled to unemployment allowance are unemployed persons who have been employed or engaged in work or an activity equal to work for at least 180 days during the twelve months prior to their registration as unemployed, and whose income is less than the 31-fold daily rate of the unemployment allowance.

Unemployment insurance - a type of compulsory insurance the purpose of which is to provide, upon unemployment, partial compensation for lost income to insured persons during the time that they are looking for work; partial compensation of the expenses of employers related to the collective termination of employment contracts and service relationships; and the protection of the claims of employees upon insolvency of employers.

Unemployment insurance benefit - income that an insured person is entitled to receive during the whole period that he or she is registered as unemployed, but not longer than 180–360 calendar days (depending on the insurance period).


6. Education

Admittance and enrolment at the beginning of the academic year, graduates during the academic year. In the case of graduates, the year stands for the end of the academic year, in other cases - the beginning of the academic year.

Bachelor’s study - study at the first level of higher education during which a student improves his or her general educational knowledge and acquires the basic knowledge and skills of a speciality and the knowledge and skills necessary for Master's study and to commence work; ISCED 5A.

Diploma study - professionally oriented first level of higher education; ISCED 5B. Admittance until 2002.

Doctoral study - study at the highest level of higher education during which a student acquires the knowledge and skills necessary for independent research, development or professional creative activity; ISCED 6.

Full-time study - study load that permits completing cumulatively at least 75 per cent of the studies, which, according to the curriculum, must be completed by the end of each academic year.

Higher education - education based on the scientific approach which is acquired on the basis of secondary education and which is certified by a corresponding graduation document.

Integrated Bachelor’s/Master’s study - a single-step Bachelor’s/Master’s study as in medicine, veterinary, pharmacy, dentistry, architecture, civil engineering and grade teacher studies; ISCED 5A.

Master’s study - study at the second level of higher education during which a student improves his or her knowledge and skills in his or her speciality and acquires the knowledge and skills necessary for independent work and Doctoral study; ISCED 5A.

Part-time study - study load that permits completing cumulatively less than 75 per cent of the studies, which, according to the curriculum, must be completed by the end of each academic year.

Professional higher education - study at the first level of higher education during which a student acquires the competence necessary for employment in a particular profession or to continue his or her studies in Master's study; ISCED 5B.

Professional higher education institution - an educational institution where professional higher education is provided, where Master's study and studies according to secondary vocational education curricula conducted on the basis of secondary education may be undertaken, and where at least two thirds of the pupils and students study according to professional higher education curricula.

Student - a person who has been admitted (matriculated) to a university in full-time or part-time professional higher education, Bachelor’s, Master’s or Doctoral study or study based on the integrated curricula of Bachelor's and Master's study.

Vocational higher education study - a form of professional higher education study, admittance from 1999 to 2002; ISCED 5B.

University - an educational, creation, research and development institution where higher education three level study are carried out according to the Standard of Higher Education.


7. Culture. Sports

Folk culture - traditional culture (in this context the folk culture does not involve all non-professional cultural activities).

Religion - the name of the religion was noted for persons aged at least 15 who felt an affiliation to a religion (denomination). At the same time the person did not have to be a member of a church or congregation. In addition, it was irrelevant whether the person had been baptised, whether he or she went to church regularly or was a member of any other non-Christian association. Answering the questions about religion was voluntary.

The number of printed matter is based on compulsory copies.


8. Tourism. Accomodation

Accommodation establishment - a business entity through which an undertaking provides accommodation services within the framework of its economic or professional activity. Accommodation establishments can be classified as follows: hotels, motels, guesthouses, hostels, holiday camps, cottages, flats, bed-and-breakfast. Tourism accommodation has been divided into two main groups: collective accommodation establishments and private tourist accommodation. The accommodation statistics of Estonian Statistics take into account only the data of collective accommodation.

Tourist or overnight visitor - a person who visits places outside his/her usual environment and stays at least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited, except for nights spent on a ship at the port of the country of destination.

Visitor - a person travelling to a place other than that of his/her usual environment for less than 12 months and whose main purpose of visit is other than exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. Visitors include tourists or overnight visitors and same-day visitors.


9. Transport

Freight turnover - the volume of work done in transporting goods and measured in tonne-kilometres. One tonne-kilometre is the transport of one tonne of goods across a distance of one kilometre.

Passenger traffic volume - the volume of work done in transporting passengers and measured in passenger-kilometres. One passenger-kilometre is the transport of one person across a distance of one kilometre.

Volume of transport - to estimate the volume of transport, the variables - the total number of carried passengers and passenger traffic volume (in passenger-kilometres) - are used. To measure the amount of goods, the variables - the amount of goods (in tonnes) and freight turnover (in tonne-kilometres) - are used.

Weight of goods - the tonnage of goods carried, including packaging but excluding the tare weight of containers or ro-ro units. Goods are classified according to the Goods Classification on Transport Statistics.


10. Energy and water supply

Final consumption of energy - energy, which is received and consumed after conversion into other forms of energy (electricity, heat, fuel). Final consumption excludes the use of energy for non-energy purposes, own use by power plants and losses.


11. City of Tallinn, administration and budget

Debt - all short-term and long-term debts.

Debt burden - the debt divided by net revenue expressed in percentages.

Income tax - a tax that is imposed on the income of a taxpayer from which the deductions allowed pursuant to law have been made.

Land tax - based on the assessed value of land. The assessed value of land is determined by the Land Valuation Act. The land tax is calculated on the basis of information received from the corresponding local government.

Local taxes - a sales tax, boat tax, advertisement tax, road and street closure tax, motor vehicle tax, animal tax, entertainment tax, parking charge.

Net revenue - the sum of taxes, sale of goods and services, benefits on unspecified purposes and other revenue.

Personal income tax - a tax that residents pay on their worldwide income.


12. Labour market. Wages and salaries

Average monthly gross wages (salaries) - payments to employees for time actually worked and remuneration to employees for time not worked divided by the average number of employees converted to full-time units. Remuneration to employees for time not worked includes vacation pay, compensation and pay for the stoppage of work, pay for the time periods during strikes and lockouts, pay for short-time working, pay for the assimilated leave in the event of vocational training and obtaining formal education. This also includes benefits and premiums (quarterly and annual bonuses, Christmas bonuses, inflation compensation, etc.) if the calculation of these payments is not based on the time actually worked and payments in kind. Payments to employees for time actually worked includes the time-rated and piece-rated payments; premium pay for overtime, shift work, night work and holiday work; premium pay for unhealthy conditions of work, length of service, qualifications and special knowledge. This also includes irregular premiums and premium pay if the calculation of these payments is based on the time actually worked.

Discouraged persons - non-working persons who would like to work and would be available for work as soon as there was work, but who are not actively seeking work because they do not believe in the chance of finding any.

Disposable income - the sum of the income from wage labour, the income and losses from selfemployment, property income, social transfers, regular inter-household cash transfers received and tax refunds, from which the regular inter-household cash transfers paid, taxes on wealth and repayments for tax adjustment have been subtracted.

Economically active population / labour force - persons who wish and are able to work (total of employed and unemployed persons).

Economically passive / inactive population - persons who do not wish or are not able to work.

Employed person - a person who, during the reference period, worked and was paid as a wage earner, an entrepreneur or a freelancer; who worked without direct payment in a family enterprise or on his/her own farm; who was temporarily absent from work.

Employment rate - the share of the employed in the working-age population.

Labour force / economically active population - persons who wish and are able to work (total of employed and unemployed persons).

Labour force participation rate / activity rate - the share of the labour force (total number of the employed and unemployed) in the working-age population.

Primary sector - agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing.

Registered unemployed person - a person who has attained at least 16 years of age and is under pension age, who is not employed, is registered in the regional employment office and seeks employment. A person seeks employment if he or she is filling individual job seeking plan and is willing to commence work immediately.

Secondary sector - mining, manufacturing, electricity, gas and water supply, construction.

Tertiary sector - trade, services, etc.

Unemployed - a person who fulfils the following three conditions:

  • he or she is without work (does not work anywhere at the moment and is not temporarily absent from work);
  • he or she is currently (in the course of two weeks) available for work if there should be work;
    • he or she is actively seeking work.

Unemployment rate - the share of the unemployed in the labour force.

Working-age / labour-age population - the part of the population that is used as the basis when examining the economic activity of the population, or in other words, the population of the age that is the object of the labour force survey (persons aged 15–74).


13. Economy. ICT usage in enterprises

Consumer price index - expresses the change in the prices of consumer goods and paid services.

Enterprise - Company, sole proprietor.

Gross domestic product (GDP) at market prices - the sum of the gross value added of all resident producers at basic prices, plus taxes less subsidies on products.

Industrial sales - the cost of production and services of industrial type which were produced in enterprise and which had been realized (sold) and delivered to purchaser in the reference period regardless of the time when the payment for the production  was received.

Kind of activity - enterprises have been divided into groups by economic activity according to the Estonian Classification of Economic Activities (EMTAK 2008), which is based on the NACE Rev. 2 (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Communities).

Number of employees - persons who work for an employer and who have a contract of employment and receive compensation in the form of wages, salaries, fees, gratuities, piecework pay or remuneration in kind. Number of employees is measured as an annual average.

Number of persons employed - total number of persons who work in the enterprise, irrespective of the length of their working week. The number of persons employed is measured as an annual average.

Employed persons include:

  • working proprietors and their unpaid family members;
  • full- and part-time employees who are on the pay-roll;
  • persons who work outside the unit (sales representatives, delivery personnel, repair and maintenance teams, etc.) but who are on the staff list and the pay-roll of the enterprise;
  • persons temporarily absent from work (persons on sick leave, paid leave, study leave, on strike, etc.);
  • seasonal workers, trainees (apprentices) and home-workers who are on the pay-roll;
  • persons employed under the contract for services.

Unpaid family workers refer to persons who live with the proprietor of the enterprise and work regularly for the enterprise, but who do not have an employment contract and who do not receive remuneration for the work they perform. This group includes only those persons who are not on the payroll of another enterprise as full-time employees.

The number of employed persons excludes the staff of other enterprises who carry out ordered work, and also persons who are absent from work for a long time (persons on child care leave, conscripts, etc.).

Regional gross domestic product (regional GDP or RGDP) at market prices - regional value added plus regionalised net taxes on products (net taxes on products less subsidies on products). The sum of RGDP at market prices per region equals national GDP at market prices.

Regional value added - value added (output less intermediate consumption) generated by the production activities of economic entities (enterprises, institutions, organisations or their structural units) resident in a region.

Research and development - creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

Statistical profile - the database of economically active units (companies, sole proprietors, institutions, non-profit associations). Since 1994 Statistics Estonia uses this database as a sampling frame for all economic statistics.

Value added - the value of output less the value of intermediate consumption. Turnover + change in stocks of work-in-progress and finished goods (stocks at the end minus stocks at the beginning of the reference year) + capitalized self-constructed assets + other revenue (without profit from the sale of tangible assets) – other expenses (without loss from the sale of tangible assets) – costs of merchandise, materials, supplies, intermediate goods, electricity, fuel, power, laid-out work – duties and taxes linked to production – taxes on products.


14. Construction

Building - construction works, which is permanently attached to the ground, has a roof, envelope structure and interior space.

Civil engineering works - constructions which are not classified under buildings: railways, roads, bridges, etc.

Building permit - the consent granted by a local government for:

  • the erection of a construction works, and of civil engineering works necessary to service the construction works, on the land unit specified in the building permit;
  • the expansion of the construction works or a part thereof specified in the building permit;
  • the reconstruction of the construction works or a part thereof specified in the building permit;
  • the demolition of the construction works or a part thereof specified in the building permit.

Construction production in Estonia - the cost of purchased sub-contracting work in Estonia and construction activities in foreign countries have been deducted from the sales of construction activities, +/- changes in work in progress.

Dwelling - a one-family house, section of a two-family or a terraced house or a flat, which consists of one or more rooms and meets sanitary engineering requirements and is suitable for permanent residence.

Non-residential building - a building not intended for permanent residence.

Permit for use of a construction works (construction completed) - the agreement on the part of a local government that a completed construction works or a part thereof conforms to the requirements prescribed for such construction works and that it may be used for the intended purpose.

Residential building - a building, of which all or at least half of area is intended for permanent residence (one-dwelling building, two-dwelling building, terraced house or any other multifamily house). Summerhouses, youth hostels, motels, campsites and other buildings which are intended for relaxation and temporary residence are not considered residential buildings.


15. Violation of law. Accidents

1st degree offence - an offence the maximum punishment prescribed for which in the Penal Code is imprisonment for a term of more than five years, life imprisonment or compulsory dissolution (Criminal Code - imprisonment for a term exceeding eight years).

2nd degree offence - an offence the punishment prescribed for which in the Penal Code is imprisonment for a term of up to five years or a pecuniary punishment (Criminal Code - imprisonment for a term not exceeding eight years).

Accident at work - physical or mental harm or death of the employee in the course of work which occurred while fulfilling the task given by the employer or in other work done under his authorisation, during the break included in the working time or at other time acting in the interests of the employer.

Criminal offence - an offence which is provided for in the Penal Code and the principal punishment prescribed for which in the case of natural persons is a pecuniary punishment or imprisonment and in the case of legal persons, a pecuniary punishment or compulsory dissolution.

Juvenile - an under 18-year-old person.

Fatal accident at work - an accident which leads to the death of a victim within one year of the accident.

Persons injured - persons injured means any person injured who was hospitalised for more than 24 hours as a result of an accident, excluding attempted suicides.

Persons killed - persons who died at the place of the traffic accident immediately or within 30 days following the traffic accident because of an injury received in the traffic accident (excl. suicides).

Person killed by fire - a person who was killed by fire on the fire scene or in the following 30 days. This includes persons who died from mechanical injuries resulting from being on the scene (e.g. falling or jumping out of a burning building, falling structures due to fire, falling on stairs, injuries from shards of glass, getting trampled by other people in the course of evacuation, explosion of a gas cylinder, etc.), a health problem (a stroke, heart attack, etc.) developing or triggered by the fire if based on the collected data there is reason to presume that the fire started before the health problem.

Recorded criminal offence - the act defined in the special part of the Penal Code with regard to whixh criminal proceedings have been initiated or which is recorded in criminal proceedings.

Road traffic accidents - a traffic accident is an event in which an individual is injured or killed or proprietary damage is caused as a result of at least one vehicle moving on or leaving a road.

Service - work for money (carriage of dead bodies or cars, carriage of water, work in the height, door unlocking, ice watering, water pumping, cleaning roofs, etc.).

Traffic accident - an event in which an individual is injured or killed or proprietary damage is caused as a result of at least one vehicle moving on or leaving a road.

Traffic accident callout - rescue operations after traffic accident (first-aid to victims, restriction and lighting of scene, liquidation of consequences, restart the traffic).


16. Environment. Waste management

Pollutants at city air monitoring stations

  • Carbon monoxide CO
  • Nitrogen oxide NO
  • Nitrogen dioxide NO2
  • Ozone O3
  • Sulphur dioxide SO2
  • Fractions of particulate matter PM10

Pollutants in precipitation, Harku monitoring station

  • pH
  • Ammonium ion NH4+
  • Nitrate ion NO3-
  • Cloride ion Cl -
  • Sulfate ion SO42-

Last modified 16.08.2022