COVID-19 vaccination FAQ
FAQ-s about vaccinations
I have had COVID-19. Should I still get vaccinated?
At present, there is insufficient information to say whether or how long a person is protected from re-infection after being infected with a coronavirus. Preliminary evidence suggests that innate immunity after having COVID-19 may not last very long, but more research is needed to better understand it.
The National Expert Committee on Immunoprophylaxis recommends that people who have recovered from COVID-19 be vaccinated with a single dose at 6 months after recovery and then the vaccination course is considered complete.
Even if more than six months have passed since the onset of COVID-19 disease, it is recommended that only one dose be given for long-term protection.
Does a person vaccinated against COVID-19 need to be quarantined after close contact with a COVID-19 patient?
If you have had a vaccination course, you do not need to be quarantined after close contact with a COVID-19 patient if you do not have any symptoms.
If you develop symptoms of the disease, you should remain isolated and contact your family physician so that they can refer you to a COVID-19 test.
Does a person vaccinated against COVID-19 spread less virus? Do I carry the virus after I have been vaccinated?
It is not known exactly at the moment, research in this area is ongoing and the information is constantly being updated. However, clinical studies have shown that vaccination helps to prevent serious illness.
Does the mask have to be worn after vaccination?
Yes, those who have been vaccinated against COVID-19 must continue to wear the mask in public indoor places. This is a necessary precaution to reduce the chance of self-infection and transmission. Many have not yet been vaccinated against COVID-19 and by wearing the mask correctly, we are able to protect them.
After being vaccinated, can I move around more freely and visit my grandmother?
The person being vaccinated may feel more secure because they are unlikely to develop severe COVID-19 themselves. Visiting your grandmother is a very good idea, but make sure that she is also vaccinated.
When will the second dose of vaccine be given?
The vaccination schedule for Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty, Moderna and AstraZeneca Vaxevria consists of two doses. Janssen vaccine is a single dose.
The vaccination schedule is different for each vaccine:
- Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty - the second dose is given after 6 weeks
- Moderna - the second dose is given after 4 weeks
- AstraZeneca Vaxevria - the second dose is given after 12 weeks.
The vaccination course is considered complete 7-15 days after the second dose, depending on the vaccine.
If you have had COVID-19, you will be vaccinated with a single dose.
If a person becomes ill with COVID-19 within two weeks of receiving the first dose of the vaccine, they should be considered infected and should be vaccinated with a single dose, preferably 6 months after recovery, and then the vaccination course can be considered complete.
A person who has been vaccinated with a single dose and develops COVID-19 more than two weeks after the first dose but before the second dose does not require a second dose and the vaccination course can be considered complete.
The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine Comirnaty and the Moderna vaccine are mRNA vaccines. What does this mRNA do to my body?
The mRNA in the COVID-19 vaccine enters the muscle cell, causing the muscle cell to produce one of the corona virus's outer shell proteins (spike protein). As a result, the human immune system, in turn, begins to produce antibodies to the spike protein. They protect the person against the inhaled coronavirus.
What happens if I am pregnant and vaccinate against COVID-19? Or if I find out about pregnancy between two doses?
Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended as COVID-19 can be more severe in pregnant women and can lead to a number of complications. Clinical trials of COVID-19 in pregnant women are ongoing and data are still limited, but based on the available data, vaccination against COVID-19 does not pose a specific risk to the mother or the fetus. Pending further data on other COVID-19 vaccines, the use of mRNA vaccines that have been shown to be safe in recent studies is recommended for use in pregnant women.
Vaccination against COVID-19 is not in any way contradicting with breast-feeding, all COVID-19 vaccines used in Estonia can be administered, based on their recommended use.
Should pregnancy be avoided after vaccination?
No, there are no restrictions in this regard.
Can mRNA vaccines alter human DNA?
Human DNA is hidden in the cell nucleus, the cell nucleus is surrounded by a lipid bilayer or nuclear membrane. mRNA does not get close to DNA through the nuclear membrane. Because the vaccine mRNA and human DNA do not come into contact, the DNA is not affected in any way.
Will the vaccine affect my fertility and my future children and how?
Because the mRNA in the vaccine does not come into contact with human DNA, there is no effect on fertility or future children.
However, male fertility can be affected by COVID-19, which can cause orchitis (inflammation of the testicles) and impair semen quality.
How long does the immunity produced by the COVID-19 vaccine last?
It is not yet possible to say how long immunity will last, as clinical trials are still ongoing. It is currently known that protection against severe COVID-19 lasts for at least 6 months, but this period is likely to be even longer.
Is it possible that I will still be infected with the coronavirus after vaccination?
The probability of getting infected exists, but it is low. Most importantly, however, all COVID-19 vaccines in use in the European Union are very effective in preventing serious illness.
How can I prove that I have been vaccinated?
Vaccination data is immediately transmitted to the e-immunization passport, which can be found on the patient portal www.digilugu.ee
There you will find a digital COVID-19 immunization certificate that you can download.
Where and to whom to report if any side effects occur?
Side effects may occur after vaccination. The most common mild side effects with COVID-19 vaccines are injection site pain and swelling, headache, fever, malaise, nausea, muscle aches and joint pain. The symptoms usually recede in a few days.
If you have a more serious health problem that lasts for more than three days after vaccination, contact your family physician or call 1220.
The vaccinators are obliged to inform the State Agency of Medicines about occurring side effects, but if you wish, you can also notify the State Agency of Medicines of health-related complaints yourself: www.ravimiamet.ee/en/covid-19-vaktsiini-k%C3%B5rvaltoimetest-teatamise-vorm
Can having comorbidities affect the seriousness of side effects?
People who have a history of anaphylactic reactions to any injectable medicine or vaccine should definitely consult their family physician before vaccination.
Can other vaccines be given during COVID-19 vaccination?
Research in this area is still ongoing. It is currently recommended that other vaccines be given two weeks before and after COVID-19.
What happens if I become unknowingly ill with COVID-19 and receive the vaccine?
People are not vaccinated during the acute phase of the disease. Vaccination does not complicate the course of the disease, but the expected protective effect of the vaccine does not occur.
Should I test myself just before vaccination, such as an antibody test or a nasopharynx test?
No, prior testing for virus or antibodies is not required.
If I am tested for COVID-19, can I get a positive answer if I have been vaccinated?
As antibodies start to form after vaccination, an antibody test will definitely give a positive result in the serum. The result of the nasopharyngeal test is not affected by COVID-19 vaccination, as the nasopharyngeal test detects the presence of the virus in the nasopharynx.
If I develop a runny nose and sore throat after completing the vaccination schedule, will I be tested for COVID-19?
Yes, testing is necessary in this case, but you should also be tested for other respiratory viruses.
- See also COVID-19 information in Tallinn